Techniques - GlossaryPrint this page

Techniques - Glossary

This glossary is an attempt to answer clearly and shortly frequently asked questions about sculpture. There's a limited number of words, but I'll try to complete it with new words in the future.
Feel free to suggest words to add to this list by sending an e-mail at the address brunesomogyi@free.fr.

A

Adze

Example of adze
Example of adze

Tool used to carve wood. It looks like an axe but with a perpendicular edge to the handle. It's used to rough out the sculpture.

Alginate

It is a compound obtained from a family of brown algae, laminarias or fucus, which is used in particular for the realization of moldings of parts of the body because it is natural and respectful for the skin and the mucous membranes.

B

Biscuit

 

Bush hammer

 

C

Carborundums or carbos

 

Catalyst

When using a silicone by condensation, the use of a catalyst is necessary to provoke the taking of the silicone. Catalysts are classified according to their time of taking which can be of 6 hours or 24 hours.

China

See Porcelain.

Chisel or flat chisel

Example of stone chisel
Example of stone chisel
Example of wood chisel
Example of wood chisel

Tool used to carve wood or stone with a straight flat edge. In stone carving it's generally used after the tooth Chisel and in wood carving after the gouge, to remove the peaks and troughs left from the previously used tools.

D

Direct cut

Working on wood or stone directly, whithout using any enlargement or reproduction technique.

E

Earthenware

 

Enamel

 

G

Gouge

Examples of gouges edges shapes
Examples of gouges edges shapes
Examples of gouges
Examples of gouges

Tool used to carve wood or stone wich has the shape of a curved chisel. Gouges are classified by sweep and large of their edge. There's also bent gouges.

H

High relief

Scupture where the volume is on a background and represents more than 50% of the subject. The high relief is therefore not linked to the deepth of the relief, but to the proportion of the subject getting out of the background.

K

Keys

 

L

Leather

Leather consistency indicates the consistency of a clay which began to dry but is not totally dry, it is supple under the finger but does not deform. The leather consistency is the moment suited for practise cuts on the clay or apply decorations before cooking.

Low relief

Scupture where the volume is on a background and represents less than 50% of the subject. The low relief is therefore not linked to the deepth of the relief, but to the proportion of the subject getting out of the background.

M

Medium relief

Scupture where the volume is on a background and represents 50% of the subject. The medium relief is therefore not linked to the deepth of the relief, but to the proportion of the subject getting out of the background.

Modelling tools

 

Oak

 

P

Parting line

 

Pitching tool

Example of pitching tool
Example of pitching tool

Large edge tool used in preliminary rough shaping blocks of stone. It allows to remove large quantities of stone with a natural shape break, not always straight...

Point chisel

Example of point chisel
Example of point chisel

Tool with a pointed head, used to carve stone. It's generally used to rough out the stone. The figure will then be created using the Tooth Chisel.

Porcelain or China

 

R

Relief

Sculpture created on a flat bottom, there are different kinds of reliefs like engraved reliefs, low reliefs, medium reliefs or high reliefs...

Ribbing tools

 

Riffler

 

Round sculpture

A sculpture is said "in the round" when every side of it is done and therefore the subject can be seen from every angle.

S

Screed

 

Silicone

 

Skew

Example of skew
Example of skew

Skews have double diagonal cutting edge. They are useful to work in hard-to-reach angles.

Slip

A slip is a suspension in water of clay or other materials used in the production of ceramic ware.

Statue

Sculpture in the round depicting a human being or an animal from feet to head.

Stoneware

 

T

Thixotropic agent

In molding, it is a thickening agent which makes the silicone less fluid and thus easier to apply on a vertical piece.

Tooth Chisel

Example of tooth chisel
Example of tooth chisel
Example of tooth chisel
Example of tooth chisel

Tool with sharped tooth head. This tool is generally used after the point chisel to create the figure and before the flat chisel which will remove the peaks and troughs left from the previously used tools.

Trimming tools

 

U

Undercut

 

V

V-parting tool

Examples of V edges shapes
Examples of V edges shapes
Example of V-parting tool
Example of V-parting tool

Tool with a deep V cutting edge, used in wood carving or engraving. V-parting tools are classified by their edge angle and width.

W

Wood fiber

 

 

 

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